Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Principles

Summary of Significant Accounting Principles
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
Summary of Significant Accounting Principles [Abstract]  


The following accounting principles and practices are set forth to facilitate the understanding of data presented in the financial statements:


Nature of operations and principles of consolidation


Workhorse Group Inc. (Workhorse, the Company, we, us or our) is a technology company focused on providing sustainable and cost-effective solutions to the commercial transportation sector. As an American manufacturer we design and build high performance battery-electricelectric vehicles and aircraft that make movement of people and goods more efficient and less harmful to the environment. As part of the Company’s solution, it also develops cloud-based, real-time telematics performance monitoring systems that enable fleet operators to optimize energy and route efficiency. Although the Company operates as a single unit through its subsidiaries, it approaches its development through two divisions, Automotive and Aviation. The Company’s core products, under development and/or in manufacture, are the medium duty step van, the light duty pickup, the delivery drone and the manned multicopter.


Workhorse, formerly known as Title Starts Online, Inc. and AMP Holding Inc., was incorporated in the State of Nevada in 2007 with $3,100 of capital from the issuance of common shares to the founding shareholder. On August 11, 2008 the Company received a Notice of Effectiveness from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and on September 18, 2008, the Company closed a public offering in which it accepted subscriptions for an aggregate of 200,000 shares of its common stock, raising $50,000 less offering costs of $46,234. With this limited capital the Company did not commence operations and remained a “shell company” (as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended).


On December 28, 2009, the Company entered into and closed a Share Exchange Agreement with the Shareholders of Advanced Mechanical Products, Inc. (n/k/a AMP Electric Vehicles, Inc.) (AMP) pursuant to which the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding securities of AMP in exchange for 14,890,904 shares of the Company’s common stock. Considering that, following the merger, the AMP Shareholders control the majority of the outstanding voting common stock of the Company, and effectively succeeded the Company’s otherwise minimal operations to those that are AMP.  AMP is considered the accounting acquirer in this reverse-merger transaction.  A reverse-merger transaction is considered and accounted for as a capital transaction in substance; it is equivalent to the issuance of AMP securities for net monetary assets of the Company, which are deminimus, accompanied by a recapitalization. Accordingly, goodwill or other intangible assets have not been recognized in connection with this reverse merger transaction.  AMP is the surviving entity and the historical financials following the reverse merger transaction will be those of AMP.  The Company was a shell company immediately prior to the acquisition of AMP pursuant to the terms of the Share Exchange Agreement.  As a result of such acquisition, the Company operations are now focused on the design, marketing and sale of vehicles with an all-electric power train and battery systems.  Consequently, we believe that acquisition has caused the Company to cease to be a shell company as it now has operations.  The Company formally changed its name to AMP Holding Inc. on May 24, 2010.


Since the acquisition, the Company has devoted the majority of its resources to the development of an all-electric drive system capable of moving heavy large vehicles ranging from full size SUV’s up to and including Medium Duty Commercial trucks.  Additionally, in February 2013, the Company formed a new wholly owned subsidiary, AMP Trucks Inc., an Indiana corporation. On March 13, 2013 AMP Trucks Inc. closed on the acquisition of an asset purchase of Workhorse Custom Chassis, LLC.  The assets included in this transaction included:  the Workhorse brand, access to the dealer network of 440 dealers nationwide, intellectual property, and all physical assets which included the approximately 250,000 sq. ft. of facilities on 48 acres of land in Union City, Indiana.  This acquisition allows the Company to position itself as a medium duty OEM capable of producing new chassis with electric, propane, compressed natural gas, and hybrid configurations, as well as gasoline drive systems.  


On April 16, 2015 the Company filed Articles of Merger with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada to change the name from “AMP Holding Inc.” to “Workhorse Group Inc.”. The Company believed that this change will allow investors, customers and suppliers to better associate the Company with the Workhorse brand, which is well known in the market.


The consolidated financial statements include Workhorse Group Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries, together referred as “The Company”. Intercompany transactions and balances are eliminated in consolidation.


The Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries include Workhorse Technologies Inc., Workhorse Motor Works Inc. and Workhorse Properties Inc.


Basis of presentation


The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and liquidation of liabilities in the normal course of business.  However, the Company has limited revenues and has negative working capital and stockholders’ deficits.  These conditions raise substantial doubt about the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern.


In view of these matters, continuation as a going concern is dependent upon the continued operations of the Company, which, in turn, is dependent upon the Company's ability to meet its financial requirements, raise additional capital, and successfully carry out its future operations.  The financial statements do not include any adjustments to the amount and classification of assets and liabilities that may be necessary, should the Company not continue as a going concern.


The Company has continued to raise capital.  Management believes the proceeds from these offerings, future offerings, and the Company’s anticipated revenue, provides an opportunity to continue as a going concern.  If additional funding is required, the Company plans to obtain working capital from either debt or equity financing from the sale of common, preferred stock, and/or convertible debentures. Obtaining such working capital is not assured. The Company is currently starting production and is switching focus from R&D to manufacturing.


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes.  Actual results could differ from these estimates.


Certain reclassifications were made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported results of operation or stockholders’ deficit.


Financial instruments


The carrying amounts of financial instruments including cash, inventory, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate fair value because of the relatively short maturity of these instruments.


Accounts receivable


Accounts receivable consist of collectible amounts for products and services rendered. The Company carries its accounts receivable at invoice amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a history of past write-offs and collections and current credit conditions. The Company generally does not require collateral for accounts receivable. During 2016 and 2015, sales to one customer approximated 91% and 100% of net sales, respectively. At December 31, 2016 the entire balance of accounts receivable was due from two customers.


Lease Receivable


The Company’s leasing activities consist of the leasing of trucks which are classified as direct financing leases.  Revenue is recognized at the inception of the lease.  The leases have a term of 8 years.  Future payments to be received on the leases are as follows:


  2017     98,400  
  2018     41,375  
  2019     41,375  
  2020     41,375  
  2021     41,375  
  Thereafter     154,994  




Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market. Manufactured inventories are valued at average cost, and consist of raw materials, work in process and finished goods.


Property and depreciation


Property and equipment is recorded at cost.  Major renewals and improvements are capitalized while replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets, are expensed. When property and equipment is retired or otherwise disposed of, a gain or loss is realized for the difference between the net book value of the asset and the proceeds realized thereon. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method, based upon the following estimated useful lives:


  Buildings:     15 - 30 years  
  Leasehold improvements:     7 years  
  Software:       3 - 6 years  
  Equipment:       5 years  
  Vehicles and prototypes:      3 - 5 years   


Common stock


On April 22, 2010, the directors of the Company approved a forward stock split of the common stock of the Company on a 14:1 basis.  On May 12, 2010, the stockholders of the Company voted to approve the amendment of the certificate of incorporation resulting in a decrease of the number of shares of common stock.   Management filed the certificate of amendment decreasing the authorized shares of common stock with the State of Nevada on September 8, 2010. On February 11, 2015, the Company filed a certificate of amendment to its articles of incorporation to increase the authorized shares of common stock to 50,000,000.


On December 9, 2015, the Company filed a Certificate of Amendment to its Certificate of Incorporation to implement a one-for-ten reverse split of the Corporation’s issued and outstanding common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”), as authorized by the stockholders of the Company. The Reverse Stock Split became effective at the open of trading on December 11, 2015 (the “Effective Date”). As of the Effective Date, every ten shares of issued and outstanding common stock were combined into one newly issued share of common stock. No fractional shares were issued in connection with the Reverse Stock Split. Total cash payments made by the Company to stockholders in lieu of fractional shares was not material.


All references in the financial statements and MD&A to number of common shares, price per share and weighted average shares of common stock have been adjusted to reflect the Reverse Stock Split on a retroactive basis for all prior periods presented, unless otherwise noted, including reclassifying an amount equal to the reduction in par value of common stock to additional paid in capital.


The capital stock of the Company is as follows:


Preferred Stock - The Company has authorized 75,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $.001 per share. These shares may be issued in series with such rights and preferences as may be determined by the Board of Directors. There are no shares of preferred stock outstanding.


Common Stock - The Company has authorized 50,000,000 shares of common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share. 


Revenue recognition / customer deposits


It is the Company's policy that revenues will be recognized in accordance with SEC Staff Bulletin (SAB) No. 104, "Revenue Recognition".  Under SAB 104, product revenues (or service revenues) are recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred (or service has been performed), the sales price is fixed and determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured.


Income taxes


With the consent of its shareholders, at the date of inception, the Company elected under the Internal Revenue Code to be taxed as an S corporation. Since shareholders of an S corporation are taxed on their proportionate share of the Company’s taxable income, an S corporation is generally not subject to either federal or state income taxes at the corporate level.  On December 28, 2009 pursuant to the merger transaction the Company revoked its election to be taxed as an S-corporation.


As no taxable income has occurred from the date of this merger to December 31, 2016 cumulative deferred tax assets of approximately $17.9 million are fully reserved, and no provision or liability for federal or state income taxes has been included in the financial statements.  Carryover amount are:


  Approximate net operating loss ($ millions)   Carryover to be used against taxable income generated through year  
  3.6     2030  
  6.7     2031  
  3.9     2032  
  4.7     2033  
  6.1     2034  
  9.0     2035  
  18.7     2036  


Research and development costs


The Company expenses research and development costs as they are incurred. Research and Development costs were approximately $6.1 million and $4.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 respectively, consisting primarily of personnel costs for our teams in engineering and research, prototyping expense, and contract and professional services.  Union City plant expenses prior to the start of production are also included in research and development expenses. 


Basic and diluted loss per share


Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period.  For all periods, all of the Company’s common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per common share because they were anti-dilutive, due to the Company’s net losses.


Stock based compensation


The Company accounts for its stock based compensation in accordance with “Share-Based Payments” (codified in FASB ASC Topic 718 and 505).  The Company recognizes in its statement of operations the grant-date fair value of stock options and warrants issued to employees and non-employees.  The fair value is estimated on the date of grant using a lattice-based valuation model that uses assumptions concerning expected volatility, expected term, and the expected risk-free rate of return.  For the awards granted, the expected volatility was estimated by management as 50% based on a range of forecasted results.  The expected term of the awards granted was assumed to be the contract life of the option or warrant (one, two, three, five or ten years as determined in the specific arrangement).  The risk-free rate of return was based on market yields in effect on the date of each grant for United States Treasury debt securities with a maturity equal to the expected term of the award.


Related party transactions


Certain stockholders and stockholder family members have advanced funds or performed services for the Company.  These services are believed to be at market rates for similar services from non-related parties.  Related party accounts payable are segregated in the balance sheet.


Subsequent events


The Company evaluates events and transactions occurring subsequent to the date of the consolidated financial statements for matters requiring recognition or disclosure in the consolidated financial statements. The accompanying consolidated financial statements consider events through March 14, 2017, the date on which the consolidated financial statements were available to be issued.