Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Prinicples

Summary of Significant Accounting Prinicples
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2015
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  


The following accounting principles and practices are set forth to facilitate the understanding of data presented in the financial statements:

Nature of operations and principles of consolidation

Workhorse Group Inc. (Workhorse, AMP, we, us or our) designs, develops, manufactures,  and sells high-performance, medium-duty trucks with advanced powertrain components under the Workhorse chassis brand.

Workhorse Group Inc., formerly known as Title Starts Online, Inc. (the Company), incorporated in the State of Nevada in 2007 with $3,100 of capital from the issuance of common shares to the founding shareholder. On August 11, 2008 the Company received a Notice of Effectiveness from the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, and on September 18, 2008, the Company closed a public offering in which it accepted subscriptions for an aggregate of 200,000 shares of its common stock, raising $50,000 less offering costs of $46,234. With this limited capital the Company did not commence operations and remained a “shell company” (as defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended).

On December 28, 2009, the Company entered into and closed a Share Exchange Agreement with the Shareholders of Advanced Mechanical Products, Inc. (n/k/a AMP Electric Vehicles, Inc.) (AMP) pursuant to which the Company acquired 100% of the outstanding securities of AMP in exchange for 14,890,904 shares of the Company’s common stock. Considering that, following the merger, the AMP Shareholders control the majority of the outstanding voting common stock of the Company, and effectively succeeded the Company’s otherwise minimal operations to those that are AMP.  AMP is considered the accounting acquirer in this reverse-merger transaction.  A reverse-merger transaction is considered and accounted for as a capital transaction in substance; it is equivalent to the issuance of AMP securities for net monetary assets of the Company, which are de minimis, accompanied by a recapitalization. Accordingly, goodwill or other intangible assets have not been recognized in connection with this reverse merger transaction.  AMP is the surviving entity and the historical financials following the reverse merger transaction will be those of AMP.  The Company was a shell company immediately prior to the acquisition of AMP pursuant to the terms of the Share Exchange Agreement.  As a result of such acquisition, the Company operations are now focused on the design, marketing and sale of vehicles with an all-electric power train and battery systems.  Consequently, we believe that acquisition has caused the Company to cease to be a shell company as it now has operations.  The Company formally changed its name to AMP Holding Inc. on May 24, 2010.

Since the acquisition, the Company has devoted the majority of its resources to the development of an all-electric drive system capable of moving heavy large vehicles ranging from full size SUV’s up to and including Medium Duty Commercial trucks.  Additionally, in February 2013, AMP Holding Inc. formed a new wholly owned subsidiary, AMP Trucks Inc., an Indiana corporation. On March 13, 2013 AMP Trucks Inc. closed on the acquisition of an asset purchase of Workhorse Custom Chassis, LLC.  The assets included in this transaction included:  the Workhorse brand, access to the dealer network of 440 dealers nationwide, intellectual property, and all physical assets which included the approximately 250,000 sq. ft. of facilities on 48 acres of land in Union City, Indiana.  This acquisition allows the Company to position itself as a medium duty OEM capable of producing new chassis with electric, propane, compressed natural gas, and hybrid configurations, as well as gasoline drive systems.  Revenues since the inception of the Company, February 20, 2007, through the date of these financial statements have not been significant and consist of customer vehicle conversions and sales of converted experimental vehicles.

On April 16, 2015 AMP Holding Inc. filed Articles of Merger with the Secretary of State of the State of Nevada to change the name from “AMP Holding Inc.”  to “Workhorse Group Inc.”. The company believes that this change will allow investors, customers and suppliers to better associate the company with the Workhorse brand, which is well known in the market.


Basis of presentation

The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and liquidation of liabilities in the normal course of business.  However, the Company has limited revenues and has negative working capital and stockholders’ deficits.  These conditions raise substantial doubt about the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern.

In view of these matters, continuation as a going concern is dependent upon the continued operations of the Company, which, in turn, is dependent upon the Company's ability to meet its financial requirements, raise additional capital, and successfully carry out its future operations.  The financial statements do not include any adjustments to the amount and classification of assets and liabilities that may be necessary, should the Company not continue as a going concern.

The Company has continued to raise capital.  Management believes the proceeds from these offerings, future offerings, and the Company’s anticipated revenue, provides an opportunity to continue as a going concern.  If additional funding is required, the Company plans to obtain working capital from either debt or equity financing from the sale of common, preferred stock, and/or convertible debentures. Obtaining such working capital is not assured.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes.  Actual results could differ from these estimates.

Certain reclassifications were made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation.  These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported results of operation or stockholders’ equity (deficit).

Financial instruments

The carrying amounts of financial instruments including cash, inventory, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate fair value because of the relatively short maturity of these instruments.


Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market.

Property and depreciation

Property and equipment is recorded at cost.  Major renewals and improvements are capitalized while replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets, are expensed.  When property and equipment is retired or otherwise disposed of, a gain or loss is realized for the difference between the net book value of the asset and the proceeds realized thereon.  Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method, based upon the following estimated useful lives:


Buildings:  15 - 30 years

Leasehold improvements:  7 years

Software:  3 - 6 years

Equipment:  5 years

Vehicles and prototypes:  3 - 5 years


Capital stock

On April 22, 2010, the directors of the Company approved a forward stock split of the common stock of the Company on a 14:1 basis.  On May 12, 2010, the stockholders of the Company voted to approve the amendment of the certificate of incorporation resulting in a decrease of the number of shares of Common stock.  The Company filed a 14c definitive information statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission and mailed the same to its shareholders.  Management filed the certificate of amendment decreasing the authorized shares of common stock with the State of Nevada on September 8, 2010.

The capital stock of the Company is as follows:

Preferred Stock - The Company has authorized 75,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $.001 per share.  These shares may be issued in series with such rights and preferences as may be determined by the Board of Directors.  The Series A Stock is convertible, at any time at the option of the holder, into common shares of the Company based on a conversion price of $0.336 per share.  The holders of the Series A Stock are not entitled to convert the Series A Stock and receive shares of common stock such that the number of shares of common stock held by them in the aggregate and their affiliates after such conversion or exercise does not exceed 4.99% of the then issued and outstanding shares of common stock.  The Series A Stock has voting rights on an as converted basis, does not pay dividends, and does not provide any liquidation rights.


Common Stock - On January 5, 2015, our Board of Directors and stockholders approved an amendment to the Articles of Incorporation to increase the number of authorized shares of common stock from 250,000,000 to 500,000,000 with a par value of $0.001. The additional shares of common stock authorized by the Amendment, have the same rights and privileges as the shares of common stock previously authorized.

Revenue recognition / customer deposits

It is the Company's policy that revenues will be recognized in accordance with SEC Staff Bulletin (SAB) No. 104, "Revenue Recognition".  Under SAB 104, product revenues (or service revenues) are recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred (or service has been performed), the sales price is fixed and determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured.

Income taxes

With the consent of its shareholders, at the date of inception, AMP elected under the Internal Revenue Code to be taxed as an S corporation.  Since shareholders of an S corporation are taxed on their proportionate share of the Company’s taxable income, an S corporation is generally not subject to either federal or state income taxes at the corporate level.  On December 28, 2009 pursuant to the merger transaction the Company revoked its election to be taxed as an S-corporation.

As no taxable income has occurred from the date of this merger to March 31, 2015 cumulative deferred tax assets of approximately $9.1 million are fully reserved, and no provision or liability for federal or state income taxes has been included in the financial statements.  Carryover amount are:



Approximate net operating loss

($ millions)

    Carryover to be used against taxable income generated through year  
  3.6       2030  
  6.7       2031  
  3.9       2032  
  4.7       2033  
  6.1       2034  
  1.9       2035  


Uncertain tax positions

The Company adopted the provisions of Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes.  Those provisions clarify the accounting and recognition for income tax positions taken or expected to be taken in the Company’s income tax returns.  The Company’s income tax filings are subject to audit by various taxing authorities.  The years of filings open to these authorities and available for audit are 2011 - 2013.  The Company's policy with regard to interest and penalties is to recognize interest through interest expense and penalties through other expense.  No interest or penalties with regard to income tax filings were incurred in any period, including 2014 or 2013, or since the period of inception, February 20, 2007.  In evaluating the Company’s tax provisions and accruals, future taxable income, and the reversal of temporary differences, interpretations and tax planning strategies are considered.  The Company believes their estimates are appropriate based on current facts and circumstances.

Research and development costs

The Company expenses research and development costs as they are incurred. Research and Development costs were approximately $847 thousand million and $569 thousand for the three month period ended March 31, 2015 and 2014, and $17.3 million for the period of inception to March 31, 2015, consisting primarily of personnel costs for our teams in engineering and research, prototyping expense, and contract and professional services.  Union City plant expenses prior to the start of production are also included in research and development expenses.


Basic and diluted loss per share

Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period.  For all periods, all of the Company’s common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per common share because they were anti-dilutive, due to the Company’s net losses.

Stock based compensation

The Company accounts for its stock based compensation in accordance with “Share-Based Payments” (codified in FASB ASC Topic 718 and 505).  The Company recognizes in its statement of operations the grant-date fair value of stock options and warrants issued to employees and non-employees.  The fair value is estimated on the date of grant using a lattice-based valuation model that uses assumptions concerning expected volatility, expected term, and the expected risk-free rate of return.  For the awards granted, the expected volatility was estimated by management as 50% based on a range of forecasted results.  The expected term of the awards granted was assumed to be the contract life of the option or warrant (one, two, three, five or ten years as determined in the specific arrangement).  The risk-free rate of return was based on market yields in effect on the date of each grant for United States Treasury debt securities with a maturity equal to the expected term of the award.

Related party transactions

Certain stockholders and stockholder family members have advanced funds or performed services for the Company.  These services are believed to be at market rates for similar services from non-related parties.  Related party accounts payable are segregated in the balance sheet.

Subsequent events

The Company evaluates events and transactions occurring subsequent to the date of the consolidated financial statements for matters requiring recognition or disclosure in the consolidated financial statements. The accompanying consolidated financial statements consider events through May 15, 2015, the date on which the consolidated financial statements were available to be issued.