Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)


12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
We are an American technology company with a vision to pioneer the transition to zero-emission commercial vehicles. Our primary focus is to provide sustainable and cost-effective solutions to the commercial transportation sector. We design and manufacture all-electric delivery trucks and drone systems, including the technology that optimizes the way these vehicles operate. We are focused on our core competency of bringing our electric delivery vehicle platforms to market.
Liquidity and Capital Resources

The Company had revenues of $5.0 million for the period ended December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2022, the Company had $99.3 million in cash and cash equivalents, positive working capital of $74.9 million, accumulated deficit of $627.6 million, and during the year ended December 31, 2022 incurred a net loss of $117.3 million and used $93.8 million of cash in operating activities.

As the Company has made significant progress executing on its revised strategic product roadmap for our electric vehicle delivery offerings, we expect to generate additional sales revenue within the next twelve months which will help support our operations. Additionally, Management plans to reduce its discretionary spend related to non-contracted capital expenditures and other expenses, if necessary. These plans alleviated the substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern caused by the significant losses from operations and cash used in operating activities. However, if the expected sales are not generated and Management is not able to control capital expenditures and other expenses, we will continue to incur substantial operating losses and negative cash flows from operations. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in implementing its plans or acquiring additional funding, that the Company’s projections of its future working capital needs will prove accurate, or that any additional funding would be sufficient to continue operations in future years.

The Company’s future liquidity and working capital requirements will depend on numerous factors, including, the ability to generate sales, the ability to control capital expenditures and other expenses, and the ability to raise funds via private or public placement of our equity securities.

The Company intends to raise additional funds through issuance of equity, including through the At-The-Market Program. If the Company is unable to maintain sufficient financial resources, its business, financial condition and results of operations will be materially and adversely affected. This could affect future vehicle program production and sales. Failure to obtain additional equity financing will have a material, adverse impact on the Company’s business operations. There can be no assurance that the Company will be able to obtain the needed financing on acceptable terms or at all. Additionally, any equity financings would likely have a dilutive effect on the holdings of the Company’s existing stockholders.

Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and reflect our accounts and operations and those of our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts used for, but not limited to, collectability of accounts receivable, inventory valuation, warranties, leases and related disclosures in the accompanying notes.
We have assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and are not aware of any specific events or circumstances that required an update to our estimates and assumptions or materially affected the carrying value of our assets or liabilities as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. These estimates may change as new events occur and additional information is obtained. Actual results could differ from these estimates under different assumptions and conditions.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
All highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less at the date of acquisition are considered cash equivalents.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Credit Loss
Accounts receivable primarily include amounts related to sales of our products and services rendered. We provide an allowance against accounts receivable for the amount we expect to be uncollectible. We write-off accounts receivable against the allowance when they are deemed uncollectible.
Inventory Valuation
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. We write-down inventory for any excess or obsolete inventories or when we believe the net realizable value of inventories is less than the carrying value. We review our inventory to determine whether its carrying value exceeds the net amount realizable upon the ultimate sale of the inventory. This requires us to determine the estimated selling price of our inventory based on market conditions. Once inventory is written-down, a new, lower cost basis for that inventory is established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in that newly established cost basis.

Should our estimates of future inventory usage or selling prices change, additional and potentially material increases to this reserve may be required. A small change in our estimates may result in a material charge to our reported financial results.

The Company has a bill and hold arrangement related to the sale of inventory during the year ended December 31, 2022. Other income was recognized when control transfers to the purchaser, as the bill-and-hold arrangement is requested from the customer, the product is identified as belonging to the customer and is ready for physical transfer, and the product cannot be directed for use by anyone other than the purchaser. See Note 2, Inventory, of the Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on the sale of inventory.
Property, Plant and Equipment, Net
Property, plant and equipment, net, including leasehold improvements, are recognized at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the respective assets, as follows:

Buildings and improvements
15 - 39 years
Land improvements 15 years
Equipment and vehicles
3 - 7 years
Tooling 5 years

Leasehold improvements are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the shorter of their estimated useful lives or the term of the related leases.

Upon the retirement or sale of our property, plant and equipment, the cost and associated accumulated depreciation are removed from the consolidated balance sheet, and the resulting gain or loss is reflected on the consolidated statement of operations. Maintenance and repair expenditures are expensed as incurred while major improvements that increase the functionality, output or expected life of an asset are capitalized and depreciated ratably over the identified useful life.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets, such as property, plant, and equipment are reviewed for potential impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset or asset group to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset or asset group. If the carrying amount of an asset or asset group exceeds its estimated undiscounted future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized by the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds the fair value of the asset or asset group.
Valuation of Investment
As permitted under ASC 321, Equity Securities, the Company has elected to account for its investment in Tropos, an equity investment without a readily determinable fair value, at its cost minus impairment, which there is none. In accordance, with ASC 321, the Company evaluates the investment for impairment each period and reassess if the equity security does not have a readily determinable fair value.
We had an investment in Class A Common Stock of Lordstown Motor Corp. (“LMC”) which began trading on the Nasdaq Global Select market under the ticker symbol “RIDE” on October 26, 2020. We sold our investment during the third quarter of 2021.

Warranty Liability
We generally offer warranty coverage for our products. We accrue warranty related costs under standard warranty terms and for certain claims outside the contractual obligation period that we choose to pay as accommodations to our customers.
Provisions for estimated assurance warranties are recorded at the time of sale and are periodically adjusted to reflect actual experience. The amount of warranty liability accrued reflects management’s best estimate of the expected future cost of honoring Company obligations under the warranty plans. Historically, the cost of fulfilling the Company’s warranty obligations has principally involved replacement parts, towing and transportation costs, labor and sometimes travel for any field retrofit campaigns. The Company’s estimates are based on historical experience, the extent of pre-production testing, the number of units involved and the extent of features/components included in product models. The Company reviews actual warranty claims experience to determine if there are systemic defects that would require a field campaign.
Although we believe the estimates and judgments discussed herein are reasonable, actual results could differ and we may be exposed to increases or decreases in our warranty liability accrual that could be material.
Activity for the Company's warranty liability accrual is as follows:
December 31,
2022 2021
Balance, beginning of year $ 4,583,916  $ 5,400,000 
Accrual for warranty(1)
(987,701) 1,045,578 
Warranty costs incurred (1,388,541) (1,861,662)
Balance, end of year $ 2,207,674  $ 4,583,916 
(1) The decrease to the warranty liability accrual in 2022 primary relates to a decreased volume of vehicles covered under warranty as well as a lower liability per vehicle as compared to 2021.

Fair Value Option
As permitted under ASC 825, Financial Instruments, the Company elected the fair value option to account for its convertible notes. In accordance with ASC 825, the Company recorded its convertible notes at fair value with changes in fair value recorded in Interest Expense in the Consolidated Statement of Operations. As a result of applying the fair value option, direct costs and fees related to the convertible notes were recognized in earnings as incurred and not deferred. During 2022, the Company exchanged the aggregate principal of the 2024 Notes for shares of the Company’s common stock, resulting in a contractual principal balance of the 2024 Notes as of December 31, 2022 of zero.
Income Taxes

We file a consolidated U.S. federal income tax return and separate state and local income tax returns. We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to temporary differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and tax benefit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities at the end of each period are determined using enacted tax rates. A valuation allowance is established or maintained when, based on currently available information, it is more likely than not all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will not be realized.

We recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position claimed or expected to be claimed on a tax return only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the Consolidated Financial Statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when obligations under the terms of a contract with our customer are satisfied; generally this occurs when we transfer control of our vehicles, parts, or accessories, or provide services. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. For the majority of sales, this occurs when products are shipped from our manufacturing facility. At the time of revenue recognition, we reduce the transaction price and record a sales return reserve against revenue for estimated variable considerations related to future product returns. Such estimates are based on an analysis of known pending returns and historical experience. We adjust our estimate of revenue at the earlier of when the value of consideration we expect to receive changes or when the consideration becomes fixed.

Sales and other taxes we collect concurrent with revenue-producing activities are excluded from revenue. Incidental items that are immaterial in the context of the contract are recognized as expense. The expected costs associated with our base warranties and field service actions are recognized as expense when the products are sold. We do not have any material significant payment terms as payment is received at or shortly after the point of sale.

Revenue related to extended service contracts are recognized over the term of the agreement in proportion to the costs we expect to incur in satisfying the contract obligations.

We have elected to recognize the cost for freight and shipping when control over vehicles, parts, or accessories have transferred to the customer as an expense in Cost of Sales.
Deferred revenue is related to any non-refundable amounts that are collected from customers related to our unsatisfied assembly services. Deferred revenue is recognized as revenue as the performance obligations are satisfied.
Deferred revenue is equivalent to the total service fee allocated to the assembly service performance obligations that are unsatisfied as of the balance sheet date.

Cost of Sales
Cost of sales include direct parts, material and labor costs, manufacturing overhead, including depreciation costs of tooling and machinery, shipping and logistics costs, and reserves for estimated warranty expenses. Cost of sales also includes charges to write down the carrying value of our inventory when it exceeds its estimated net realizable value and to provide for obsolete and on-hand inventory in excess of forecasted demand.
Research and Development Costs
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.
Marketing, Promotional and Advertising Costs
Marketing, promotional and advertising costs are expensed as incurred and are included as an element of selling, general and administrative expense in the consolidated statement of operations.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is comprised of adjustments to the fair value of our convertible notes due to changes in credit risk.
Stock-Based Compensation
We recognize compensation expense for costs related to all stock-based arrangements, including stock options, restricted stock awards (“RSA”) and performance-based share units (“PBSUs).” The fair value of stock option awards with only service conditions is estimated on the grant or offering date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of RSAs is measured on the grant date based on the closing fair market value of our common stock. The fair value of PBSUs is estimated using a Monte-Carlo simulation model. Stock-based compensation expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, net of actual forfeitures in the period.
As we issue additional employee stock-based awards over time and as we incorporate additional market data related to our common stock, we may calculate significantly different volatilities and expected lives, which could materially impact the valuation of our stock-based awards and the stock-based compensation expense that we will recognize in future periods. Stock-
based compensation expense is recorded in Selling, General and Administrative Expense in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Net Income (Loss) per Share of Common Stock
Basic income (loss) per share of common stock is calculated by dividing net income (loss) by the weighted-average shares outstanding for the period. Potentially dilutive shares, which are based on the weighted-average shares of common stock underlying outstanding stock-based awards and warrants using the treasury stock method, and convertible notes using the if-converted method, are included when calculating the diluted net loss per share of common stock when their effect is dilutive.
The following table presents the reconciliation of net (loss) income and reconciliation of basic and diluted weighted average shares outstanding used in computing diluted net loss per share of common stock:
Year Ended December 31,
2022 2021 2020
Net (loss) income $ (117,274,218) $ (401,344,813) $ 69,776,499 
Basic weighted average shares outstanding 158,576,305  128,676,131  92,871,936 
Dilutive effect of options and warrants —  —  1,410,605 
Dilutive effect of convertible notes —  —  5,667,327 
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding 158,576,305  128,676,131  99,949,868 

The following table presents the potentially dilutive shares that were excluded from the computation of diluted net (loss) income per share of common stock, because their effect was anti-dilutive:
Year Ended December 31,
2022 2021 2020
Stock-based awards and warrants 6,159,285  3,152,059 1,041,531
Convertible notes —  779,258  —