Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Principles

Summary of Business and Significant Accounting Principles
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  


The following accounting principles and practices are set forth to facilitate the understanding of data presented in the condensed consolidated financial statements:


Nature of operations and principles of consolidation


Workhorse Group Inc. and its predecessor companies (“Workhorse”, the “Company”, “we”, “us” or “our”) is a technology company focused on providing sustainable and cost-effective solutions to the commercial transportation sector. As an American manufacturer, we design and build high performance battery-electric vehicles and aircraft that make movement of people and goods more efficient and less harmful to the environment. As part of our solution, we also develop cloud-based, real-time telematics performance monitoring systems that enable fleet operators to optimize energy and route efficiency. Although we operate as a single unit through our subsidiaries, we approach our development through two divisions, Automotive and Aviation. We are currently focused on our core competency of bringing the N-GEN electric cargo van to market and fulfilling our existing backlog of orders. We are also exploring other opportunities in monetizing our intellectual property which could include a sale, license or other arrangement of assets that are outside of our core focus.


The Company’s wholly owned subsidiaries include Workhorse Technologies Inc., Workhorse Motor Works Inc. and Workhorse Properties Inc.


Basis of presentation


The financial statements have been prepared on a going concern basis, which contemplates the realization of assets and liquidation of liabilities in the normal course of business. However, the Company has limited revenues and a history of negative working capital and stockholders’ deficits. Our existing capital resources will be insufficient to fund our operations through the first half of 2019. Unless and until we are able to generate a sufficient amount of revenue, reduce our costs and/or enter a strategic relationship, we expect to finance future cash needs through public and/or private offerings of equity securities and /or debt financings. If we are not able to obtain additional financing and/or substantially increase revenue from sales, we will be unable to continue as a going concern. These conditions raise substantial doubt about the ability of the Company to continue as a going concern.


In view of these matters, continuation as a going concern is dependent upon the continued operations of the Company, which, in turn, is dependent upon the Company’s ability to meet its financial requirements, raise additional capital, and successfully carry out its future operations. The financial statements do not include any adjustments to the amount and classification of assets and liabilities that may be necessary, should the Company not continue as a going concern.


The Company has continued to raise capital.  Management believes the proceeds from these offerings, future offerings, and the Company’s anticipated revenue, provides an opportunity to continue as a going concern.  If additional funding is required, the Company plans to obtain working capital from either debt or equity financing from the sale of common, preferred stock, and/or convertible debentures. Obtaining such working capital is not assured. The Company is currently in a production ramp up mode and placing greater emphasis on manufacturing capability.


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes.  Actual results could differ from these estimates.


Certain reclassifications were made to the prior year financial statements to conform to the current year presentation. These reclassifications had no effect on previously reported results of operation or stockholders’ equity.


Financial instruments


The carrying amounts of financial instruments including cash, inventory, accounts payable and short-term debt approximate fair value because of the relatively short maturity of these instruments.


Accounts receivable


Accounts receivable consist of collectible amounts for products and services rendered. The Company carries its accounts receivable at invoice amount less an allowance for doubtful accounts. On a periodic basis, the Company evaluates its accounts receivable and establishes an allowance for doubtful accounts based on a history of past write-offs and collections and current credit conditions. The Company generally does not require collateral for accounts receivable. Sales to our top two customers totaled 0% and 33% for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 98% and 0% for the year ended December 31, 2017.


Lease Receivable


The Company’s leasing activities consist of the leasing of trucks which are classified as direct financing leases.  Revenue is recognized at the inception of the lease.  The leases have a term of eight years.  Future payments to be received on the leases are as follows:


2019   $ 48,271  
2020     41,375  
2021     41,375  
2022     41,375  
2023     41,375  
Thereafter     32,590  
    $ 246,361  




Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Manufactured inventories are valued at standard cost, and consist of raw materials, work in process and finished goods.


Property, plant and equipment, net


Property, plant and equipment, net is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation.  Major renewals and improvements are capitalized while replacements, maintenance and repairs, which do not improve or extend the lives of the respective assets, are expensed. When property, plant and equipment is retired or otherwise disposed of, a gain or loss is realized for the difference between the net book value of the asset and the proceeds realized thereon. Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method, based upon the following estimated useful lives:


Buildings:     15 - 39 years  
Leasehold improvements:     7 years  
Software:     3 - 6 years  
Equipment:     5 years  
Vehicles and prototypes:     3 - 5 years  


Common stock


On April 22, 2010, the directors of the Company approved a forward stock split of the common stock of the Company on a 14:1 basis.  On May 12, 2010, the stockholders of the Company voted to approve the amendment of the certificate of incorporation resulting in a decrease of the number of shares of common stock.   Management filed the certificate of amendment decreasing the authorized shares of common stock with the State of Nevada on September 8, 2010. On February 11, 2015, the Company filed a certificate of amendment to its articles of incorporation to increase the authorized shares of common stock to 50,000,000.


On December 9, 2015, the Company filed a Certificate of Amendment to its Certificate of Incorporation to implement a one-for-ten reverse split of the Corporation’s issued and outstanding common stock (the “Reverse Stock Split”), as authorized by the stockholders of the Company. The Reverse Stock Split became effective at the open of trading on December 11, 2015 (the “Effective Date”). As of the Effective Date, every ten shares of issued and outstanding common stock were combined into one newly issued share of common stock. No fractional shares were issued in connection with the Reverse Stock Split. Total cash payments made by the Company to stockholders in lieu of fractional shares was not material.


On August 7, 2017, the shareholders of the Company voted to increase the authorized shares of common stock to 100,000,000 and the Certificate of Amendment amending the Articles of Incorporation was filed with the State of Nevada on August 8, 2018.


All references in the financial statements and MD&A to number of common shares, price per share and weighted average shares of common stock have been adjusted to reflect the Reverse Stock Split on a retroactive basis for all prior periods presented, unless otherwise noted, including reclassifying an amount equal to the reduction in par value of common stock to additional paid in capital.


The capital stock of the Company is as follows:


Preferred Stock - The Company has authorized 75,000,000 shares of preferred stock with a par value of $.001 per share. These shares may be issued in series with such rights and preferences as may be determined by the Board of Directors. There are no shares of preferred stock outstanding.


Common Stock - The Company has authorized 100,000,000 shares of common stock with a par value of $0.001 per share as of December 31, 2018.


Income taxes


As no taxable income has occurred from the date of this merger to December 31, 2018 cumulative deferred tax assets of approximately $29.6 million are fully reserved, and no provision or liability for federal or state income taxes has been included in the financial statements. Carryover amounts are:


Approximate net operating loss
($ millions)
  Carryover to be used against taxable
income generated through year
4.0   2030
6.7   2031
3.9   2032
4.6   2033
6.0   2034
8.9   2035
17.9   2036
38.5   2037
23.5   Indefinite


Research and development costs


The Company expenses research and development costs as they are incurred. Research and Development costs were approximately $7.4 million and $17.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively, consisting primarily of personnel costs for our teams in engineering and research, prototyping expense, and contract and professional services.


Basic and diluted loss per share


Basic loss per share is computed by dividing net loss available to common shareholders (numerator) by the weighted average number of shares outstanding (denominator) during the period.  For all periods, all of the Company’s common stock equivalents were excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per common share because they were anti-dilutive, due to the Company’s net losses.


Stock based compensation


The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation in accordance with “Share-Based Payments” (codified in FASB ASC Topic 718 and 505). The Company recognizes in its consolidated statement of operations the grant-date fair value of stock options and warrants issued to employees and non-employees over the option or warrant’s vesting period.  The fair value is estimated on the date of grant using a Black-Scholes valuation model that uses assumptions concerning expected volatility, expected term, and the expected risk-free rate of return.  For the awards granted, the expected volatility was estimated by management as 50% based on results from other public companies in our industry.  The expected term of the awards granted was assumed to be the contract life of the option or warrant (one, two, three, five or ten years as determined in the specific arrangement).  The risk-free rate of return was based on market yields in effect on the date of each grant for United States Treasury debt securities with a maturity equal to the expected term of the award.


Subsequent events


The company has evaluated subsequent events for potential recognition and disclosures through the date the consolidated financial statements were filed.